involvement of Eysenck and Jensen, not to mention other academics
of high repute, in the attempts to create a racist culture shows
the difficulty of distinguishing between 'respectable' and non-respectable
racism. This is reinforced by the fact that Eysenck's and Jensen's
involvement goes further than connections with the semi-academic
publications of The Mankind Quarterly, Nouvelle Ecole and
Neue Anthropologie. It is possible to point to two
occasions when Eysenck and Jensen have figured in actual fascist
In 1975, a faction of the National Front split away to form
their own party the National Party. In most respects this party
resembled the National Front: it was outwardly racist, expressing
its anti-black sentiments in crude and violent language. Moreover
it adhered to the same basic anti-Semitic view of politics as
the National Front.(69) The main difference
between the National Party and the National Front was that the
leaders of the National Party espoused the Strasserite version
of Nazism rather than the Hitlerite.
The National Party also attracted a few intellectually inclined
young members, who decided that the party needed a more 'serious'
publication than the party's vitriolic newssheet Britain
First. The result was that the National Party, February
1977, launched their magazine Beacon which, according
to its first editorial, "intends to fill a gap in the cultural
world" by "promoting pride in Britain's heritage and a concern
about its present and future well-being".
That first issue of Beacon featured an exclusive interview
with Eysenck. In the interview Eysenck explains in simple language
why he believes that "racial IQ differences" are not due to
environmental factors. He goes on to suggest that the history
of civilisations might be influenced by such racial differences:
"there is a very close correlation between the different achievements
of races and their present day IQ level".(70)
These sorts of sentiments are clearly pleasing to the ears of
contemporary fascists. The interview has been reprinted in the
American fascist magazine Steppingstones, Spring 1978.(71)
The booklist offered by Steppingstones contains Mein
Kampf, works by Goebbels and Günther and Adolf
Hitler - Photos (which, according to Steppingstones,
is "an astounding book with 160 full-page photos of Hitler with
excerpts from Mein Kampf . . .The thoughts and life
of the greatest man in history"). Steppingstones also
offers a wide selection of works by contemporary cultural racists:
e.g. Swan, Los, Lundman, Darlington, etc.
There is a slight mystery about this Beacon interview
with Eysenck. When Professor Steven Rose, Professor of Biochemistry
at the Open University, wrote an open letter to Eysenck in the
science magazine Nature mentioning the interview, Eysenck
Rose suggests that I have given personal interviews to The
Beacon; this is untrue, although I am sure he made the
allegation in good faith" (Nature, August 24, 1978,
Once again parallels can be found between Eysenck and Jensen.
If Beacon reports an exclusive interview with Eysenck,
then it is possible to find a fascist political magazine to
announce its scoop of an exclusive interview with Jensen.
In September 1975 the German monthly magazine Nation Europa
featured an exclusive interview with Jensen (pp.19-28), under
the heading of Rasse und Begabung ('Race and Achievement').
There is, however, one difference between this interview and
Eysenck's with Beacon. Whereas Beacon was
a publication of an insignificant fascist group (the National
Party never attracted the support of the National Front and
is now defunct), Nation Europa has been one of the
most substantial fascist publications for a number of years.
Two Italian journalists, Del Boca and Giovana, surveying fascism
throughout the world wrote in their book Fascism Today:
"Nation Europa has for many years been considered to be
the most authoritative organ of European neo-Fascism" (p.457).
Nation Europa was established shortly after the Second
World War by a former Waffen-SS officer, Arthur Ehrhard. Associated
with Nation Europa were many old Nazis attempting to
reorganise Nazi activities throughout Europe. In 1951 a Fascist
International conference was held in Malmo Sweden, attended
by more than 30 fascist leaders. The purpose of the conference
was to lay the basis for future fascist activities. The conference
was organised by the Swiss fascist Per Engdahl. An observer
of the fascist scene wrote at the time: "Dr Engdahl, the organiser
of this movement, is conspicuously associated with a German
journal which may be described as the brains trust of the Fascist
International. Nation Europa, a well-produced monthly
(published at Coburg) claims to be labouring in the service
of European nationalism" (Wiener Library Bulletin, 1952
Early contributors included many of the remains of the old Nazi
'elite': i.e. Hans Grimm, Karl Heinz Priester, Oswald Mosley,
Julius Evola (the Italian racist, whose works are highly recommended
in Nouvelle Ecole: see p.76, Autumn 1973) and Maurice
Bardèche, the French fascist who started a book with
the statement je suis un écrivain fasciste.(73)
Adolf von Thadden, the ex-leader of the NPD, is a regular contributor
and Richard Verrall of the National Front's directorate,(74)
and editor of the National Front's paper Spearhead,
is also a contributor (see his article Was will Englands
'National Front'? in September 1977).
Not too surprisingly some of the cultural fascists and racists,
involved with The Mankind Quarterly and Neue Anthropologie,
also write for Nation Europa: for example, Kosiek,
Rieger, Swan and Irsigler.(75)
Moreover, advertisements for Nation Europa have appeared
in Neue Anthropologie; similarly Nation Europa
has carried advertisements for both Neue Anthropologie
and Nouvelle Ecole. As is to be expected, Nation
Europa also advertises overtly political publications like
Deutsche Wochen Zeitung and Northern League magazines,
as well as advertising fascist political meetings.
A few examples of the contents of Nation Europa for
1975 will be sufficient to show its fascist complexion. The
May issue published a poem entitled 'For the soldiers of the
Waffen-SS'. This tribute to the SS starts with the lines "They
have stolen our selves and our honours" but concludes encouragingly
"They have not broken our pride". The June issue advertised
an NPD meeting with Gerhard Frey and Austin App. The August
issue had an article by Fritz Brunner (Nordlandsehnsucht
und nordischer Gedanke) praising the work of Günther.
As well as the Jensen interview, the September issue also contains
a very favourable review of the pamphlet Did six million
really die? by Richard Harwood; this pamphlet, originally
published in English, but translated into several European languages,
is on most Nazi booklists and denies that the Nazi murder of
Jews ever took place. The Nation Europa review ends:
"We emphatically recommend this book, and that our youth should
get hold of it...Harwood destroys the web of lies".(76)
The Jensen interview focused on the American psychologists's
views that blacks are inherently less intelligent than whites.
Jensen expounds at length his thesis that heredity is much more
important than environment in determining intelligence. In the
course of this, he gives opinions that could not fail to please
the fascist readership of Nation Europa. For instance,
he comments that when all-white schools in America become integrated
standards of performance decline in proportion to the drop in
number of white children attending. Jensen also mentions an
increase in problems of discipline with integration. He also
discusses the hypothesis of a great 'genetic distance' between
whites and blacks.
However, not all of Jensen's thoughts in this interview match
the line of Nation Europa. In fact in a short introduction
to the interview, Nation Europa mentions Jensen's "politically
rather liberal views".
On a number of occasions, Jensen firmly rejects the interviewer's
suggestions in favour of separating races. He declares racial
segregation to be immoral and states that it runs counter to
the "essential values of freedom and liberty". Moreover Jensen
declared that "people should be treated as individuals, not
according to their racial, ethnic or social origin".
One might wonder why Nation Europa should publish such
'rather liberal views' (and indeed why Jensen should have granted
them an interview in the first place). One reason could be the
belief that in the context Jensen's liberal views do not follow
from his statements on the genetic inequalities between races.
At one point in the interview Jensen utters the injunction:
"Disregard groups and concentrate on the individual" (p.22).
However, this classic liberal position is somewhat undermined
by Jensen's own insistence on discussing data from groups (namely
blacks and whites). In fact Jensen's basic conduct as a psychologist
disregards this injunction: his work as a psychologist has been
devoted to establishing differences between groups, rather than
This basic point is not lost on fascists, even if hereditarian
psychologists might like to think that their work does not accord
with fascist racism. For instance Eysenck in a letter to The
Times, March 16 1978, attempted to argue that his scientific
conclusions in fact disproved racism. According to Eysenck:
the racist all members of a given group are inferior to all
members of another. The empirical work that Jensen and I have
surveyed makes it quite impossible to maintain any such position;
there is a great deal of overlap between any racial or national
groups that have ever been studied....Looked at from the rational
point of view, therefore, the empirical studies of different
races and national groups conclusively disprove the allegations
of racists and destroy their fundamental belief."
This attempt to distance the results of empirical psychology
from racism is founded on a specious premise, of which Eysenck
should have been aware. Racialists do not necessarily claim
that there is no overlap between racial groups and in fact they
frequently use the overlap findings to bolster their racialism.
For instance, the National Front is overtly racialist. Its paper
declares "we are proud racialists and we say so" (Spearhead,
September 1976) and its banners proclaim unequivocably
"The National Front is a Racialist Front". And when discussing
the psychological research on race and IQ differences, the National
Front does not deny any overlap between black and white intelligence.
For instance Spearhead April 1976 clearly states:
findings of Prof. Audrey Shuey, in her monumental compendium
of 50 years of I.Q. tests entitled The Testing of Negro
Intelligence, are that the Negro, on average, scores 15
to 20 points lower than the European in such tests. The average
overlap, i.e. where exceptional Negroes score the same as Whites,
is 11 per cent. According to Prof. Garrett, for every one gifted
Negro there are 7-8 gifted whites."
When he wrote The Times letter, Eysenck should have
been aware of Spearhead's position. The present author
sent Eysenck a copy of the Spearhead April 1976 article
('The reality of race' by Richard Verrall). Eysenck's response
is worth recording. His reply was that "the devil can quote
scripture, and malevolent people can always misquote factual
evidence . . . These things are sent to try us and there is
very little that can be done about it".
The inconsistencies in Eysenck's position were not lost on the
National Front. Richard Verrall and Anthony Reed-Herbert (both
leading members of the National Front) replied to Eysenck in
a letter to The Times, March 20 1978.
They dismissed Eysenck's argument about overlap between races
course there is a statistical overlap whereby a minority of
individuals of one race fall outside the norm, but in no way
does overlap, as Professor Eysenck must know full well, invalidate
the proven fact of inherited genetic differences between the
In similar spirit Verrall and Reed-Herbert pointed to the contradiction
in the position of a scientist "who has himself studied the
question of race and intelligence in terms of group comparisons"
arguing that "races cannot be considered in terms of their group
aspects, but only in terms of their 'characteristics as distinct
The conclusion of Verrall and Reed-Herbert illustrates the harmony
which the National Front believes to exist between its racialism
and the science of Eysenck and Jensen: "It is regrettable that,
in choosing to enter the political arena, Professor Eysenck
found himself unable to correlate his political conclusions
with the logic of his scientific findings".
In fact, Eysenck in his interview with Beacon went
even further. Instead of using the overlap argument to separate
his work from racism, Eysenck maintained "there is no connection
at all between the facts, whatever they are, and a
racist type of attitude" (our emphasis). Here Eysenck seems
to be implying that even if science maintained there were no
overlap between races, this would still not support racism.
More than this, Eysenck is implying that no scientific 'facts',
whatever they are, can ever be connected with racism.
Not only is this historically untrue, but it is quite absurd:
the context of the statement refutes its content, appearing
as it does in a racist magazine published by a racist political
chapter # 7